50 Years of Turmoil in Inner Mongolia

 

By: Bache

Since spring this year (1997), the Chinese Communists have been using variety of propaganda machine to broadcast and comment on Mongol problems and boasted the "great" success of Chinese communism in Inner Mongolia. All these propaganda are aimed at celebrating 50 year anniversary of establishment of Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region. In order to prove that Mongolians and Han Chinese were members of so called 'big family', Chinese propaganda repeatedly telling the beautiful and romantic story of Wang Zhaojun's "friendship" with Mongolians so that to refute those "shameless argument" of "Mongolian splittist".

 

I. Nation on the horseback---the Mongols and Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region

The geographical position of Mongolia in the Heartland of Central Asia was the main environmental factor that determined the specific character of the historical development of its inhabitants. "The Great Steppe of Mongolia" which represents a huge grazing land was most favorable for animal husbandry, and hence the civilization that developed there was of pastoral-nomadic type. Mongolia was historically a unified independent nation. It had its own: territory, ethnic group, political system, and a very developed national-ethnic consciousness. Mongolian people were well known to the world by their fierce fighting ability and strength. At the beginning of the 13th century under the leadership of Chinggis Khan, the Mongols established the most powerful empire in the world --- one that encompassed the Asian and European continents. The history of the Mongols has not only had an impact on the 50 or so nations of Europe and Asia, it has also affected Egypt on the African continent. It also had a great influence on Middle age world history. After the 16 century, Great Mongolia separated into three parts:

1). Southern Mongolia, which consisted of today's Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region and surrounding area. After Huang Taiji (Monchu Emperor) was defeated by Yuan Chonghuan, he initiated a so call "Unite with Mongolians against Ming dynasty" policy. Later, with the Mongolian help, Huang Taiji took the route through Chakhar and invaded Beijing. That was the road Chinggis Khan used in defeating Chinese troops in Beijing. Now this road is protected by the best equipped Chinese motorized 38th and 27th armored divisions.

2). Northern Mongolia, which consisted of Kingdom Khalkha tribes: Tsetsen Khan, Tushetu Khan, and Chasaktu Khan.

3). Kingdom of Jungharia - 4 parts of Oirats were called the "outside disaster" by Chinese Ming dynasty(1368---1644). Essen khan led 20,000 horse army severely defeated Yingn-tsong (Chinese Emperor)'s 100,000 army on the north of Great Wall and took Ying-tsong under house arrest. In the middle of 18th century Galdan (Boshogtu Khan) of Jungharia fought with Kang-hi's (Manchu Emperor) army in the Xi Fengkou( what is now Inner Mongolia). Unfortunately, Galdan Khan's army was defeated by Kang-hi's troops outside Xi Fengkou. Galdan himself fled to Qing Hai province. In 1758, Jungharia was occupied by Kien-lung(Manchu Emperor) . Since then, Mongolians and Han Chinese were forced to be ruled by Manchu(1644-1911). When Manchu ruler was overthrown In 1911, the northern part of Mongolia established independent Mongolia. In November of the following year, Mongolia and Russia signed the Russia & Mongolia Treaty which clearly prohibited Chinese troops to enter Mongolian territory and prohibited Chinese immigration to Mongolia. Mongolian nobility refused to recognize Inner Mongolia as Chinese territory and advocated the unity of Northern and Inner Mongolia. In November, 1913, China and Russia signed \ldblquote Declaration of China & Russia\rdblquote to divide Mongolia, in the declaration, Russia recognized the sovereignty of China over Inner Mongolia; Northern Mongolia was allowed administer autonomic rule with the condition of recognizing Chinese law. In 1917, by taking the advantage of downfall of Tsar, Chinese attempted to control outer Mongolia against the provisions of \ldblquote Declaration of China & Russia\rdblquote . On November 22, 1919, president Xu Shichang announced to abolish the autonomy of Mongolia, eliminate the treaty among China, Mongolia and Russia. Actually, since Bei Yang warlord were busy with their own warfare and had no interest to implement Xu's order. Northern Mongolia stayed as a de facto independent state.

In 1920, Communist ideas entered Mongolia, Smiirnoff's white Russian troops invaded Mongolia. On February 21, 1921, Mongolia established independent government, In June, soviet Red Army drove out white Russian army. Assisted by Soviet Union, communists lead by Choibalsen established "People's Government of Mongolian Revolution" and signed friendship treaty with Soviet Union. In July 1, 1924, Mongolian Peoples Republic was announced. In 1945, Soviet and Chinese government agreed to let Mongolian people vote for independence of Mongolia. In October, vast majority of Mongolian people voted for independence. Thereafter, Chinese Foreign Minister Mr. Wang Shijie signed an agreement called "China and Soviet Friendship Agreement" with Soviet foreign minister Morotoff, both formally acknowledged the independence of Mongolia. But, in 1952, Chinese Nationalist Government changed its mind and refused to comply with the agreement. Chinese Communist Government acknowledged the independence of Mongolia in 1949. In turn, The Mongolian government also acknowledged People's Republic of China on October 16, 1949. Mongolia was then the eighth country in the world to establish formal foreign relation with China.

In the winter of 1949, when Mao Zedong was visiting Soviet Union, he clearly promised J.V. Stalin (Joseph Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili 1879--1953 ) to guarantee the independence of Mongolia and send Ambassador to Mongolia. In the coming 11 years, Zhou Enlai and Zhu De visited Mongolia for 4 times representing Chinese government.

After Qing dynasty was overthrown in 1911, Mongolian independence and self autonomy movement started from outer Mongolia. In July 10, all Mongolian Khalkha tribes held a joint meeting in Ulaanbaator city and decided to secede from Qing dynasty to form independent country. Their specified final goal was to unite outer and inner Mongolia.

What was the situation in Inner Mongolia in that time? On July 26, 1933, under the leadership of De Wang ( he was the 31st generation descendent of Chinggis Khan), representatives of all Mongolian tribes gathered in front of "Bai Ling" temple in Ulaanchab League (League, an administrative division of Inner Mongolia autonomous Rigion , corresponding to a Prefecture) and held the first "Autonomy Conference", the meeting marked the beginning of autonomy / independence movement of Inner Mongolia. Later, as a result of intervention by Nationalist Chinese Government, invasion of Communist power and occupation of Japanese imperialist, the political situation in Inner Mongolia became very complicated, variety of political opinions appeared including "autonomy", "independence", unification of outer and inner Mongolia, there were also those who wanted to establish 'communism' in Mongolia. For example, in August 1945, more enlightened upper class Mongols and Mongolian young intellectuals held a conference in Gegen temple in Khinggan League(an administrative division of Inner Mongolia autonomous Region) and announced the establishment of Inner Mongolian People's Revolution Party and East Mongolian Party District, the conference also issued " Declaration of Inner Mongolian Liberation" , which promoted unification of Outer and Inner Mongolia, expelling of Japanese invader, opposing feudalism and demanding equality among different nationalities. It also asked all Mongol people fight for the national liberation. Thereafter, the party established Mongolian Armed force and collected signature for unification of Outer and Inner Mongolia, the party also sent delicate to Mongolian People's Republic to discuss the issue of unification, however, this encountered harsh refusal from Stalin.

On August 23, 1945, Mongol and Daghur people in Hulunboir prairie sent representatives to Ulaanbaator asking integration of Hulunboir to Mongolian People's Republic, which was refused by Communist International. Instead, the Hulunboir Autonomous Province was established in Hailar region. In October, Hulunboir Autonomous Province sent delegates to Chang Chun city requesting Chinese Government in northern district impediment "Higher degree Autonomy" in the province, the request was also rejected by China. At the same time, Mongolians in Shilingol League established "Inner Mongolian People's Provisional Committee" and requested unification of Outer and Inner Mongolia from local allied forces of Soviet & Mongolian, they also sent delegates to Mongolian People's Republic to discuss the issue of "unification", as can be expected, the request was rejected again. In September 1945, they held a Congress of Mongolian in Sonid Banner and announced the establishment of Inner Mongolian People's Republic. Buyandalai was elected as the president of the republic, a team of delegates were sent to Mongolian People's Republic again in order to convince Soviet and Mongolia to acknowledge the independence, the delegates also asked Ulaanbaator Radio Station in Mongolia to broadcast the independence of Inner Mongolia to the world, all of these requests were rejected once more.

Mongolian People's Republic not only refused to support the request of unification of Inner and Outer Mongolia, but also changed the principle goal of "ultimately unify Inner and Outer Mongolia". The main reason is because Mongolia was a "dependent" country of Soviet Union, it was "remote" controlled by J.V.Stalin. In order to protect its own security interest in Siberia, Soviet Union used Mongolia as the "buffer zone" between itself and China. Hence, Soviets, Chinese Communist and Chinese Nationalist divided Mongolia to three parts: Mongolian People's Republic, Soviet controlled Buriat Mongol Republic and Chinese controlled Inner Mongolia. On January 16, 1946, East Mongolian People's Conference was convened in Khinggan League. The conference decided to establish East Mongolian People's Autonomous Government, issued " Declaration of East Mongolian People's Autonomous Government" , passed the "Constitution of East Mongolian People's Autonomous Government" and " East Mongolian People's Autonomic Law" . On February 15, the East Mongolian Autonomous Government was formerly announced, Buyanmandukh was elected as the president, Hafunga was elected as Chief secretary of the government. East Mongolian People's Self-protection Army was also organized. Once again, "independence", "autonomy" and "unification of Inner and Outer Mongolia" were clearly indicated in these " Declaration" , "Constitution" and " Autonomic Law" . Later, led by vice-president Manibadara of East Mongolian People's Autonomous Government, a team of 7 delegates went to Chong Ching city accepted the leadership of Nationalist Chinese. During that time, there were certain number of communism believers in Mongolia who received long term train from Chinese Communist party. Headed by Ulaankhuu and directed by Chinese Communist Party, these Mongol communists specialized in "dividing" and "disintegrating" independence activities among Mongol people. With the help from Communist power, they succeeded in destroying tendency of "Nationalist Self-determination" ideas in various regions of Inner Mongolia. On April 3rd, 1946, they won the negotiation with East Mongolian People's Autonomous Government. All those who working for the communist were given the promotion, all those who against communism were severely punished, that negotiation was named "April 3 meeting" in modern Chinese history. On April 23, 1947, Communists organized so called Conference of Inner Mongolian People's Delegates in Khinggan League. The platform was decorated by Mao Zedong, Ulaankhuu, J.V.Stalin and Choibalsan's portraits and flags of Inner Mongolian Autonomous Government. On May 1st, the first Autonomic Government organized by Chinese Communist Party was announced, Inner Mongolian Autonomous Government was established on the closing date of the conference. The conference decided to set up Inner Mongolian Autonomous Government and the Provisional Congress of Inner Mongolia. The conference also passed " Constitution of Inner Mongolian Autonomous Government" , first 3 provisions of the constitution were: I. Inner Mongolian Autonomous Government was established according to the will and request of all different nationalities of Inner Mongolian people, according to Mr. Sun Yatsen ( Sun Zhongshan )'s principle of :"All the nationalities are equal" and "recognize the self-determination of all nationalities in China", according to the leader of Chinese Communist Party Mr. Mao Zedong's minority people's policy and the spirit of Congress of Political Consultant. II. Inner Mongolian Autonomous Government is the regional government of every level Mongolian people together with all other minority nationalities, the government implements higher degree autonomous power in the region. III. Inner Mongolian Autonomous Government is composed of all League and Banner ( banner, an administrative division of county level in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region ) in Inner Mongolia, which is an inseparable part of the Republic of China.

On December 2, 1949, Chinese communist changed the name of Inner Mongolian Autonomous Government to that of Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region. They did this change without any Conference of Consultant, without any All China People's Delegates Conference or without even an Inner Mongolian People. From that time on, Chinese communist completely destroyed Mongolian religious and political system. The political reform and constitutional monarchy established by Domestic Mongol Khan and nobility were terminated as the Chinese People's Liberation army forced to implement "Communist dictatorship" in Inner Mongolia.

 

II. 50 years turmoil in Inner Mongolia

In the early years of P.R.China, in order to gain assistance from Mongol upper class, Chinese communists actively encouraged Mongol people to use own language and writings and trained quite a few number of new local bureaucrats loyal to the communist power. The communists also gain support from young Mongolian intellectuals who believed Chinese was helping Mongol people. Take Ulaankhuu as an example, he was promoted as a 4 star P.L.A general, was chosen as an alternate member of Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party, was assigned as Vice Premier of P.R.China, he was also the head of Inner Mongolian Communist party, Inner Mongolian government and army commander in chief. But in the late 50's, Chinese communist's policy started to change and Mongolian people began to doubt the truth of Chinese communist's "good intention". For the Mongolians, it was the same matter either become a communist or a Chinese. For instance, so called "206 Event" in Jining city in Ulaanchab League was a good example to explain this. During that time, 5 leaflets with the content of against Chinese communists and Chinese minority policy were found all over Inner Mongolia, the leaflets contain the following 5 sections: 1). Resented to the 1962 treaty between China and Mongolia in which two countries border line was formally determined. 2). Demanding the unification of Inner and Outer Mongolia. 3) & 4). Against the control of Chinese Communist Party and Minority policy of People's Republic of China. 5). Pointed out the policy, guiding method and measure of unification of Inner and Outer Mongolia. Finally, the leaflets pouted out: Struggle hard to achieve the goal of unification of Mongolia before July 1, 1966. If this plan is not successful, then try to gain the last victory on July 1 or November 26, 1966. The vice-commander in chief Mr. Tokhtokh of Shiliingol Army District , vice-chairman Tsungdui of Shiliingol League and Attorney General Namjilin Punsag of the Prosecutor's Office of Shliingol league criticized Chinese communist's policy of forcing Mongols to learn Chinese and to accept communist ideology against their own will. As a result, they were all wiped out from the Communist party. "Unification Party" and "The Truth Party" in Eastern Inner Mongolia also announced opposing Great Han Chauvinism and unifying Inner and Outer Mongolia.

In 1954, the 71st provision of Chinese" Constitution" clearly stated: "Minorities have the right to use native language and writings." However, Chinese government thought the multi language policy helped to wide the gap between Han Chinese and minority people. So, in 1957, premier Zhou Enlai administered the "Meeting of Minority Affairs in Tsingtao city", the meeting prohibited usage of Mongolian written language among all minority primary schools. This decision received strong oppose from Mongolian intellectuals, as the result, all those who opposed the decision were suppressed again. Until 1973, Chinese communist changed mind and allowed the usage of native languages and writings.

The Chinese and their descendants who lived in Inner Mongolia for long time never bothered to learn the local languages. It is hard to hide their inner feeling of superiority of local inhabitants from the way they treat the local Mongolian culture. In the cultural revolution, Chinese communist organized political movement to search members of "Inner Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party(IMPRP). The purpose was to wipe out national dignity of Mongolian people, the consequence of this movement was devastating to Mongolians. The range of the searching extended from Inner Mongolia to Xinjiang, Qinghai, Gansu and three provinces of Northeastern China, basically, no Mongols was free of inspection. Nearly 700,000 to 800,000 people were put into the jails , close to a million were connected to IMPRP and killed 50,000 ---- all under the false charge of " local nationalism" or " trying to split up the motherland ". they received inhumane treatment both spiritually and physically. By contrast, we have never heard of a single case where a Chinese has ever been punished for being a Han Chauvinist. Such unfair practices instill a sense of outrage in Mongolians who have to live under Chinese domination. But Mongolians didn't surrender themselves to Chinese communist, all these harsh treatment increased their hatred to the communist system and Chines ruling. That was one of the main reason of subsequent clash between Han and Mongols. The movement stated from Mao Zedong's one word Zhou Enlai's note in replying to his nieces personal mail. Hence, thousands of Mongol's fate was decided by one or two Han Chinese authority's mood. For detail about this story, please refer to my article " The truth about IMPRP event during the Cultural Revolution".

In 1974, when giving his lecture in Inner Mongolian University, the famous Minority specialist Mr. Ya Hanzhang seriously criticized Chinese Communist's Ultra Han Nationalist ideology and national repression policy in Inner Mongolia. His speech received enthusiastic welcome from Mongolian people. Afterwards, Ya Hanzhang's paper was translated to Mongol and spread all over Inner Mongolia, even the Mongol herdsmen in tents heard about the name of Ya Hanzhang. Some Mongols even asked if Mr. Ya was a living Buddha in Chinese Communist. As can be expected, Mr. Ya didn't be able to escape from Communist regime, he was characterized as "counter reaction specialist in nationality theory" and transferred to work as a factory worker in He Nan province.

In the summer of 1981, a large scale student movement exploded in Inner Mongolia, the movement lasted for about 3 months under the leadership of student leader Shobtsood Temtsiltu (Xi Haiming). Students in about 100 colleges and universities from Inner Mongolia, Beijing, Gansu, Qinghai, Xinjiang and Northeastern provinces joined the student movement and organized demonstrations and strikes. The movement received wide and warm support from Mongolian communities. The ignition of the movement was the issuance of Chinese Communist Central Committee's "Number 28" document, in which Chinese Communists decided to immigrate large number of Han population to Inner Mongolia. This movement strongly weakened Chinese communist's control in Inner Mongolia.

In July 1987, Chinese government dumped 4,000 tons of nuclear waste from Germany to Mongolian Gobi Desert, this action encountered severe resistance from Mongolian people. Students from Hohhot city took the street in protesting and push their way into the building of Inner Mongolian People's Government. With no other choice, Inner Mongolian Military district chief commander Tsai Ying ordered troops to suppress the demonstration.

In 1990, there were well organized movement in Inner Mongolia openly challenged the Communist Party rule and demanded independence for Inner Mongolia. The organizers planed to achieve the goal of independence in three process: 1. Spend 2-4 year for advocate; 2. Spend 3-5 years to establish political organization; 3. Complete national independence. This movement was crushed cruelly by Chinese communist in May, 26 leaders were arrested.

In March 1994, there were protests demanding "democratic open election procedure in choosing all level of Inner Mongolian government leaders; free broadcasting and publication; allow Mongolian to publish newspapers; modify provisions in the constitution which discriminate Mongolian people; equality for all nationalities."

In April 1994, 4000 official workers protested the privileges and corruption of government officials. They wrote an appeal to the related government organization requesting: I. Implement necessary steps to stop inflation; II. Stop buying luxurious cars and houses for government officials; III. Immediately pay the salary for retired officials in order to keep their basic living demand; IV. Punish corrupted government official those who abusively used power for personal gain. As reply to the appeal, Inner Mongolian government decided the following: I. The protesters was inspired by some bad element among the government officials and workers. The purpose of these 'bad element' is directed to the Regional Communist Party Committee and Government; II. They intended to create turmoil to destroy Party's work plan and peaceful unity in Inner Mongolia; III. Autonomous Regional Government should implement necessary process including using force to resolve the event.

As the consequence this unfair treatment, the protest was expended to Bao Tou city, Jining city and Hailar city as well, more 4000 official workers including 3700 Chinese Communist Party members in over 120 government organizations involved into the event. It was clear that protest was directed to the Central government. Such event had never happened in 50 years of Communist control in China. Chinese Communist Central government scared to death, as an immediate response, the government first sent Wei Jianxing to Inner Mongolia to investigate the event, later Chinese premier Li Peng also spent 4 days in Hohhot on his way back from Mongolia to resolve the problem. In December 1995, Mr. Hada and other leaders of organization called " Southern Mongolian Democratic Alliance" was arrested. These arrests received strong protest from students and other Mongolian folks, the demonstrators held higher the portrait of Chinggis Khan and sang traditional Mongol songs, protested the cruel Communist control, demanded release of Hada and other prisoners. Afterwards, the demonstrators were dispersed by Chinese paramilitary forces, 27 people were arrested again.

 

III. The issue of "Mongolian Independence"

The issue of independence of Mongolia has always been one of the major nationality problems. Chinese communists never admit the historical cause of the problem, they simply accused "Gang of Four" responsible for Mongolian people's suffering and economic disaster. By using this accusation, the Chinese government thought they could cheat all people of China and be repented from their sins.

As a result of Chinese Communist's success in blocking the news from spreading all over China, for long time, majority Chinese people have not been informed very little of Mongolian people. By sending troops, mass immigration of Chinese, abuse of human rights, nuclear test, dumping nuclear waste, taking away the natural wealth and destroying religious tradition and culture, Chinese government harshly oppressed Mongolian people. Although there are quite a number of Chinese pro-democratic scholars who fully understand the Mongolian problem, but unfortunately, because of fear of being addressed as "Han Chinese traitor" or "National betrayer" by Chinese people, very few of them actually stand for truth and speak up for Mongolians. Rather, against their own will of setting up a "democratic" and "free" China, they are helping Chinese government unconsciously in political repression of Mongolian people.

According to Chinese statistical report, they are about 6 million Mongolian people live in China, mainly inhabited in Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region, Qing Hai, Gansu and three provinces in North-Eastern China. Mongolians occupied an area of 1,600,000 square kilometers, which consists of 1/6 of whole Chinese territory. The size is about 40 times that of Taiwan. Although Mongolian people spread over 8 provinces and autonomous region in China, but they basically live in a compact communities. They have their own language and writing, the language is the Mongolian branch of the Altai family, their alphabet is written from top to bottom. Mongolians believe in the Lamaist Buddhism according to the Yellow Faith. In 1949, just before establishment of People's Republic of China, there were more 1,400 temples, over 20,000 Buddhist lamas, but there are very few of them today. There are full of natural resources in Mongolian inhabited area: coal preservation is the number one in China, forestry resource is the number one China, the area of grass land is the number one in China, steel and iron production is the number one in China with annual production of 360,000 tons of steel. Four out of six biggest gold mine are in Inner Mongolia. 80% of whole world's preservation of selenium was in Inner Mongolia. Oil, salt and calcium are the three major industrial products. The military production plants are the biggest in China. Chinese nuclear test site is in Bayangol Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture in Xinjiang. Etc.

So called autonomous regions and autonomous prefectures have no real autonomic power. The " Law of National Autonomous Region" is just a piece of paper, no one has ever seriously implemented it. Central government is the key to communist power, it contradicts with regional autonomy. Similar to the central government in Beijing, in the autonomous region, there are Party Committee, People's Congress and People Consulting Committee etc. Governing organizations. However, all the leading position are hold by Han Chinese cardres. The leadership quality of Chinese communist in Inner Mongolia are very low, corruption is a big problem among these authorities, the lack of basic administrative ability in government organization and know nothing about modern industry. All they know is how to benefit from their own privileged power, alcohol abusing and rape and seduce women. 50 yeas after the establishment of Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region, these "local red army" members treated Mongolian people as if they are lower class animal.

In half of a century, large number of innocent Mongolians were put into prisons as "Local Nationalist" and "separatists", but no single Han Chinese has ever convicted as "Big Han Nationality Chauvinism". This sort of social injustice and corruption of government official was the main cause of Mongolian people's desire of social reform and demand for political independence. Among the regional level government officials, ethnic Mongols consists a very small portion. However, at the time of establishment of Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region, the percentage of Han Chinese officials was very small, now it just the opposite. Vast majority of judges and policemen are Han. Almost 95% of the labor force in iron-steel, oil and mineral industries is Han Chinese. There is basically no Mongols word for military industry. More than 90% of modern constructions were occupied by Han Chinese. Native of the Mongols live on mountains or grasslands share the same dwellings with their herds, where no clean water, no electrical power and no heating system are equipped. After 50 years of Chinese Communist took over, other than sufferings from the Chinese regime, Native of the Mongolian People's living condition has not changed, they are still belong to the poorest class in China. This kind of unfair treatment of Native of the Mongolian people is the basic source of turmoil.

Chinese communist's mass immigration policy has resulted large number of Han Chinese people move to Inner Mongolia. In 1949, the proportion of Han Chinese to Mongol was 1:5 , now it is 4:1. The speed of population transfer and the number of transferred is a record break in Chinese history. The mass immigration policy has resulted serious consequence, since there is no specific policy and law to protect the Native of the Mongolian people's basic rights, Mongolian culture, education and customs are on the verge of distinction.

Another major cause of conflict between Han Chinese settler and the Native of the Mongolian is the mass population transfer policy. In order to facilitate assimilation and control of Mongolian people, Chinese communist widely construct communication system such as highway, railway, bridges, telegraphic system and telephone lines in Inner Mongolia. To protect these facilities, the communist sent heavy army force in to the region.

Under the Chinese communist's nationalistic oppression policy, there are two single directional trend are being implemented, one is the free take away of local natural resources such as mineral resource, oil, coal, iron, wood, gold and animals, the other is the flow of mass Han Chinese immigrant into the Inner Mongolia. The economic plunder and mass immigration has caused great difficulty in local people's daily life. They are furious about the injustice treatment of their natural wealth. Forced by Chinese communist's "Ultra Han Nationalist" control, unequal treatment of Mongols in political, economical and social respect, Mongolian people pointed out the following new demands: "Against nationalist oppression, save Mongolians from distinction, unite all Mongols around the world, independence for Inner Mongolia.", The slogans inspired Mongolian's nationalistic enthusiasm and nationalist confidence. If one carefully observe the situation in Inner Mongolia, one would notice the confection between Han Chinese and Mongols in their way of life, language and religion is getting stronger than ever. A lot of people have already aware of these phenomenon. For example, one Chinese scholar pointed out: "Mongols were one of the strongest nationality who had the same political and military strength with Chinese in the history. For this reason, if Mongols stand up against us, they will definitely bring disastrous consequence to China."

 

IV. The Spark of Fire in Inner Mongolia

Same as the Chinese historical autocratic monarchs, Chinese Communist have been used suppression and conciliation policies together to prevent its national minorities from secession. In the coming Chinese democratic process, the minorities will certainly demand national autonomy or even independence exactly as former Soviet Union and Yugoslavian minorities did. There are huge number of relatives of Inner Mongolian people live in Mongolia, through communication with each other, these people brought in the democratic idea to Inner Mongolia. Inner Mongolia and Mongolia are the same nationality and speak the same language, the influence of each other is inevitable. At the present, democratic process and nationalistic ideology in Mongolia will definitely have great impact on Inner Mongolia, it will force Chinese government to face with problem of "Mongolian Independence". Inner Mongolia is geographically a neighbor to Chinese midland and 9 Northern provinces, it is only 120 miles to Beijing from Inner Mongolian border , if Inner Mongolia gain independence, it will have huge influence to China. In my opinion, the influence of Mongolian democratic movement and political reform to the Chinese society will be greater than the change in East Europe. Chinese government also aware of the potential danger of Inner Mongolia and pays great attention to the region, the government has imposed stronger control over Inner Mongolia since 1990. Official newspaper \ldblquote Inner Mongolian Daily\rdblquote warned local Mongol people: "A small number of class enemies may continue to have connection with international reactionary force, they are causing resentment among different nationalities in order to...". Chinese communist frankly revealed its intention to implement new policy to prevent turmoil in Inner Mongolia. Once a nationality, which suffered tens of years of political suppression from other nationality, broke the shackles of the ruling class, it will often become arrogant and out of control during the process of searching for psychological balance and spiritual need, it can lead to nationalism as happened in East Europe and ex-Soviet Union.

Although the Mongolian democratic revolution succeeded in more moderate way by establishing multi-party based democratic system. In 1996 election, The Democratic Party took the sit as the executive party of the country. However, like every major revolution in the history, it also awakened the national self consciousness of Mongols. As a result, in the very beginning of Mongolian democratic movement, Mongolian nationalist who consider Chinggis Khan as spiritual leader was revived again. The name of Chinggis Khan was sang in most popular songs among Mongols, the name was printed on the flags of democratic movements and widely published on official newspapers. The portraits of Karl Marx ( 1818\emdash 1883 ) and V.I. Lenin ( Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov 1870--1924 ) were replaced with Chinggis Khan's portrait in the museums. The famous and pride words used by Chinggis Khan to inspire Mongols to conquer the world such as: "As long as my nation exists, I don't care about my own life." "Mongol brothers, on to the horse!" were used in several demonstrations as slogans. Mongol people's demand for democracy and independence is based on. 1. Long time of national depression caused by communist system, resentment of the fact that national hero Chinggis Khan was dogmatized by Marx & Leninist dogmatism, pursue of national dignity. 2. Mongolians don't want their motherland to become Chinese "colony".

It is imaginable, through continued influence of outside information, Mongols sprit of resistance will be inspired eventually. This is proved by the fact that several pro-independence organization were suppressed by Chinese communist in resent years. Although the number of demonstrations and turmoil is increasing, it is not enough to overthrow Chinese communist regime. On the contrary, these demonstrations may be suppressed by Chinese government using even cruel method. When China changes from inside, namely, when Chinese government is forced by democratic procedure to weaken control over its own citizens, independence movement similar to East Europe and ex-Soviet Union will occur in Inner Mongolia or other minority region. Long time of military suppression of variety of independence movement has inspired minority people's resistance, their demand is 'complete independence from China". The minorities no longer believe in the false promised of the Chinese communist's so called "autonomy", they are eventually heading toward the road of complete independence.

In summery, since the day of establishment of Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region on May 1, 1947 until today, history has witnessed 50 years of violence, turmoil, poverty and hatred on the land of Inner Mongolia. Whose fault?

March 15, 1997

Columbia University, New York

Note:Mr. Bache is a Vice Chairman of the IMPP.